Philadelphia Telemedicine Glaucoma Detection and Follow-up Study: Methods and Screening Results.
PURPOSE: To describe methodology and screening results from the Philadelphia Telemedicine Glaucoma Detection and Follow-up Study.
DESIGN: Screening program results for a prospective, randomized clinical trial.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Individuals were recruited who were African-American, Hispanic/Latino, or Asian over age 40 years; Caucasian individuals over age 65 years; any ethnicity over age 40 years with a family history of glaucoma or diabetes. Primary care offices and Federally Qualified Health Centers were used for telemedicine (Visit 1). Two posterior fundus photographs and 1 anterior segment photograph were captured per eye in each participant, using a non-mydriatic, auto-focus, hand-held fundus camera (Volk Optical, Mentor, Ohio, USA). Medical and ocular history, family history of glaucoma, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure measurements using the ICarerebound tonometer (ICare, Helsinki, Finland) were obtained. Images were read remotely by a trained retina reader and a glaucoma specialist.
RESULTS: From 4/1/15, to 2/6/17, 906 individuals consented and attended Visit 1. Of these, 553 participants were female (61.0%) and 550 were African American (60.7%), with a mean age of 58.7 years. A total of 532 (58.7%) participants had diabetes, and 616 (68%) had a history of hypertension. During Visit 1, 356 (39.3%) participants were graded with a normal image. Using image data from the worse eye, 333 (36.8%) were abnormal and 155 (17.1%) were unreadable. A total of 258 (28.5%) had a suspicious nerve; 62 (6.8%) had ocular hypertension, 102 (11.3%) had diabetic retinopathy; and 68 (7.5%) had other retinal abnormalities.
CONCLUSION: An integrated telemedicine screening intervention in primary care offices and Federally Qualified Health Centers detected high rate of suspicious optic nerves, ocular hypertension, and retinal pathology.