BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) was introduced in Lao People's Democratic Republic to prevent perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in 2008; high coverage is challenging since only 38% of births occur in a health facility.
PURPOSE: Extension for Community Health Outcomes (ECHO) is a provider-level telemedicine model successfully applied to hepatitis C care, but little is known about its application to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) care.
Northwestern Ontario in Canada provides a unique clinical challenge for providing optimal medical care. It is a large geographic area (385,000 km(2)) and is home to 32 remote First Nations communities, most without road access.
Roughly 33 million people worldwide are infected with HIV; disease burden is highest in resource-limited settings. One important diagnostic in HIV disease management is the absolute count of lymphocytes expressing the CD4(+) and CD8(+) receptors.
BACKGROUND: Data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence are limited in developing countries. There is also limited information of consistent condom use efficacy for reducing HBV transmission at the population level.
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